Wife Va'shaundya has filed for legal separation in Los Angeles from the 37-year-old basketball star, court papers show.
In papers filed Monday, Va'shaundya O'Neal cites irreconcilable differences for the break in their seven-year marriage, and is seeking sole custody of their four minor children, ages 3 to 9, with visitation for O'Neal.
She's also asking for an unspecified amount of money for child support. She said she will eventually seek a divorce.
It's the second split for the pair. Shaq filed for divorce in 2007 in Miami-Dade County in Florida, but the two later reconciled, after a bitter dispute over whether or not he was hiding money from her.
There is a prenuptial agreement in place.
Further complicating matters is his wife's claims of residency in California, which has a more generous community-property divorce law than Florida. She reportedly flew out to L.A. recently, and claimed herself a resident of California on Nov. 8, a day before the separation papers were filed.
A lawyer for Va'shaundya and a rep for O'Neal weren't immediately available for comment.