The case focuses on Kody Brown and his wives Meri, Janelle, Christine and Robyn, whose lives are depicted on the TLC reality show that premiered last month.
The Utah County Attorney's Office received the case from Lehi, Utah, police on Monday. Polygamy cases are extremely rare in the state and authorities say this one was prompted by the publicity from the show. The maximum penalty for felony polygamy is five years in prison.
Utah County Attorney Jeff Buhman said he didn't know when a decision on charges would be made. "It varies. It could take months," he tells E! News.
The Browns have said they were "disappointed" in the investigation but "knew there would be risks" in doing the show.